Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are diseases that are not transmitted from one person to another. This disease is a long-term (chronic) with a slow progression, and can be suffered by all age groups (children to the elderly) in all regions of the world. Currently, there are four main types of non-communicable diseases, namely: cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma), and diabetes (WHO, 2015).
More than two thirds (70%) of the global population died from NCDs. More than three quarters of these deaths are premature death (less than 70 years of age) and occurred in developing countries, including Indonesia. In countries with low and medium economic level, all deaths in people aged less than 60 years, 29% were caused by NCDs, whereas 13% in developed countries. Several causes of death PTM in people aged less than 70 years are cardiovascular disease (39%), followed by cancer (27%), chronic respiratory diseases and digestive diseases and others NCDs together cause about 30 % of deaths and 4% of deaths due to diabetes (WHO, 2015; US Daar et al, 2007).
According to the World Health Organization, the worldwide deaths from NCDs are increasing steadily. The highest increase will occur in the poor and middle income countries. Indonesian Basic Health Research-Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) in 2007 and Household Health Survey in 1995 and 2001 showed that for 12 years (1995-2007) Indonesia is experiencing an epidemiological transition where deaths due to NCDs is increasing, while the mortality due to infectious diseases decreased. The prediction in 2030 there will be 52 million deaths per year due to non-communicable disease. In the poor and middle income countries, NCDs will be responsible for almost five times more than deaths from infectious diseases, maternal, perinatal and nutritional problems (WHO, 2015; Department of Health, 2012).
Several risk factors were identified as the cause of NCDs, namely: unhealthy and unbalanced foods, physically inactive lifestyle, the use of tobacco and alcohol at an alarming level. The above behavior causes metabolic disorders (increased blood pressure, blood sugar, blood lipid levels and overweight /obesity) which may increase the risk of NCDs. The risk factors are supported by advanced age, poorly planned and rapid urbanization, and the spread of unhealthy lifestyles worldwide (WHO, 2015).
NCDs increase spending on health care costs. Communities with low income, limited access to health services and high exposure to risk factors will become sick and die sooner than those from higher social classes. At the WHO meeting in Geneva in 2011, a study reported that health care costs for PTM absorb more than 1/3 of state expenditures for health sector with the highest costs are used for cardiovascular diseases. Expenses increased due to NCDs in low-income countries has not been a focus of attention from policy makers, donors, and even academics (Beaglehole R & D Yach, 2003; Garg C & D Evans, 2011; WHO, 2015).
In order to respond to this situation, it needs a comprehensive policy of the government and non-government agencies. In developing countries, the capacity and resources to respond to this problem are indicated. One example that can be observed is slow progress to control tobacco industry. A comprehensive action from all sectors (health, finance, education, agriculture, etc.) is necessary. The focus of preventive actions is to reduce the risk factors that contribute to the emergence of NCDs, particularly modifiable risk factors (tobacco use, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol) (WHO, 2015).
Based on the problems described above, the Faculty of Public Health University of Ahmad Dahlan, will hold an international seminar in the field of epidemiology with the theme “Current Issue of Non-Communicable Disease”.